The Last Sermon (Farewell) of Prophet Muhammad (Sallalahu alahi walahi wasalam)
Date delivered: 632 A.C., 9th day of Dhul al Hijjah, 10 A.H. in the ‘Uranah valley of Mount Arafat.
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.
On the Hajj Day, Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) arrived at Arafat and stayed there. As the day declined, he sent for his dromedary. The animal was brought and put ready. He rode into the heart of the valley and delivered his famous address which proved his life’s last Hajj sermon.
After praising Almighty Allah, he started his address in these words: There is none to worship except Allah. None is like Him or equal Him nor has any co-sharer. He fulfilled His promise and helped His own creature and Messenger, and He along defeated and smashed all the concerted forces of falsehood.
O ye people! Listen to me, as I do not think we may have another opportunity of meeting again as in this gathering
O, people! Allah Almighty says:
O mankind: We created you from a male and female couple and made you into tribes and nation so as to be known one from another. Verily in the days of Allah only the most righteous among you is the most honored of you’ in the light of the Quranic verse, the Prophet concluded, no Arab nor was a white anyway better than a black. The only criterion for the superiority and respectably was the one element of piety.
All human beings, he said were the offspring of Adam and the very existence of Adam was that he sprang from dust. Hence all claims to superiority and greatness t, and demands for blood or rule have been trodden under my feed. The only trusteeship over water to Kaaba and the old right to serve water to Hajjis will remain intact.
The Prophet further observed: O Ye the clan of Quraish, see thou should appear resurrected on the Day of Judgment before Allah, laden with the worldly weight of sins whilst others equipped with acts of goodness deserving, I shall not be in a position to keep you up in the presence of Almighty Allah.
O the people of Quraish Allah has put an end to your nation of false vanity and there is no room left now for your feeling proud any longer of your forefathers’ deeds. Now everybody’s blood, property, and property and now of the Holy Month and especially in this city. And you will meet your Sustainer. He will ask you about your deeds.
After me do not go astray and begin to kill one another. If anybody is made custodian of anything, he must keep that trust till the thing held in custody is restored to the rightful owner.
O Ye people! A Muslim is another Muslim’s are brothers among themselves.
Take care of your slaves. Let them eat what you yourself eat and let them wear as you wear for yourself.
All that prevailed during the pre-Islamic period of ignorance has been trampled under my feet. All blood dues of the day of ignorance have been written off and henceforth none will wreak vengeance on the others. The first right to retaliate pertaining to my own house stands sowed. I hereby pardon the murder by Banu Huzail of the suckling babe of Rabia son of Haris, who belonged to my family.
All interest or usurious dues coming from the time of ignorance stand scorched off and I lead the rest by canceling the interest payable to the family of my uncle Abbas bin Abdul Muttalib.
O ye people, Allah has (through the law of inheritance) fixed the right of every rightful heir, therefore no other testament be considered valid for any of these.
Only the child born within wedlock will be considered legal legitimate heir to the parents. Adultery proved will be punishable by stoning. All acts of omission and commission will be accountable to Almighty Allah hereafter.
Anybody claiming false ancestry or ascribing untrue bondage against his own master will be accursed by Allah.
Debts payable should be cleared. All borrowed property is to be returned, while gifts should be countered and a surety must make good the loose on behalf of the assured.
It is not proper for anybody to have anything from his brother except whatever is given over through brother’s consent and pleasure. Do not overstep yourselves as well as others and allow no excesses whatsoever.
A woman has no right to part with or transfer to any other person her husband’s property without the latter’s express permission.
O ye people, you owe your women certain rights and likewise, you have rights over your women. Your right is that the women should not like. Near them anybody whom you not like. Their right is to maintain completed integrity and shun indecency. If they fail, Allah allows you to chastise them and when they behave better and come round, let them be well looked after.
Treat your women nicely as they are bound to you and are incapable of managing many of their affairs themselves. Hence always keep Allah’s command in view, namely that you have accepted them in the name of Allah and His name have been made lawful to you. O people understand what I say. I have conveyed to you the message of Allah.
I leave in your amidst a thing which if held by, will never let you go astray. And that is the Holy Book of Allah. And beware exceeding limits fixed in matters of the religion. Nations which preceded you perished because of similar unwarranted lapses.
Satan has now been spared no hope of being worshiped anymore in his city or yours. However chance is yet, there in matters unwittingly considered miner by you, Satan’s ways ma prevails. Even that much affords him a convenient footing. So take care to safeguard your faith and religion against Satan’s perversions.
Behold! Worship your Lord; offer prayers five times a day; observe fast in the month of Ramadhaan; pay readily the Zakat (poor due) on your property, and perform pilgrimage to the House of God and obey your rulers and you
will be admitted to the Paradise of your Lord.
Henceforth a criminal will himself be answerable for his crime. A son will not be chargeable on father’s account nor will a father repay for his son’s doing.
Listen! Those who are present here should convey my message to the other not present here. Maybe many of those not present on this occasion may prove of greater understanding and be better trustees of what I have conveyed unto you.
And o ye people, you may be questioned by Allah about me. What will be your reply?
The people cried in reply: we shall bear witness that you conveyed to us the Divine message entrusted to you as Apostle of Allah and led us to the path of truth and goodness.
Hearing that, Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) pointing with his index finger towards heaven signed to the gathering and observed thrice in devout passion: “Be witness to it O my Allah Almighty, Be witness to it O my Allah Almighty, Be witness to it O my Allah Almighty”